Break-Loose Temperatures in 13 mm and 20 mm Serum Stopper Depending on Vial Neck Size and Capping Force (Mean Geometric Tolerances) by Following the Force-Based Approach and the Nodal Approach

Neck Size13 mm20 mm
Capping Force12 N40 N112 N18 N40 N125 N
Break-loose temperature force-based approach*−40 °C to −35 °C−43 °C to −39 °C−41 °C to −37 °C−21 °C to −15 °C−30 °C to −22 °C−35 °C to −27 °C
Break-loose temperature nodal approach−29 °C−31 °C−40 °C−21 °C−22 °C−30 °C
  • * The temperature range throughout the rubber stopper when contact force is <0.1 N.